REMI

Technical

The model consists of thousands of simultaneous equations with a structure that is relatively straightforward.  The exact number of equations used varies depending on the extent of industry, demographic, demand, and other detail in the specific model being used.  The overall structure of the model can be summarized in five major blocks:  (1) Output and Demand, (2) Labor and Capital Demand, (3) Population and Labor Supply, (4) Compensation, Prices, and Costs, and (5) Market Shares. In this section, relevant technical documents have been organized by their applicable model block.


Block 1. Output and Demand

This block includes output, demand, consumption, investment, government spending, import, commodity access, and export concepts.  Output for each industry in the home region is determined by industry demand in all regions in the nation, the home region’s share of each market, and international exports from the region.

For each industry, demand is determined by the amount of output, consumption, investment, and capital demand on that industry.  Consumption depends on real disposable income per capita, relative prices, differential income elasticities, and population.  Input productivity depends on access to inputs because a larger choice set of inputs means it is more likely that the input with the specific characteristics required for the job will be found.  In the capital stock adjustment process, investment occurs to fill the difference between optimal and actual capital stock for residential, non-residential, and equipment investment.  Government spending changes are determined by changes in the population.

 


Block 2.  Labor and Capital Demand

The Labor and Capital Demand block includes the determination of labor productivity, labor intensity, and the optimal capital stocks.  Industry-specific labor productivity depends on the availability of workers with differentiated skills for the occupations used in each industry.  The occupational labor supply and commuting costs determine firms’ access to a specialized labor force.

Labor intensity is determined by the cost of labor relative to the other factor inputs, capital and fuel.  Demand for capital is driven by the optimal capital stock equation for both non-residential capital and equipment.  Optimal capital stock for each industry depends on the relative cost of labor and capital, and the employment weighted by capital use for each industry.  Employment in private industries is determined by the value added and employment per unit of value added in each industry.

 


Block 3.  Population and Labor Supply

The Population and Labor Supply block includes detailed demographic information about the region.  Population data is given for age, gender, and ethnic category, with birth and survival rates for each group.  The size and labor force participation rate of each group determines the labor supply.  These participation rates respond to changes in employment relative to the potential labor force and to changes in the real after-tax compensation rate.  Migration includes retirement, military, international, and economic migration.  Economic migration is determined by the relative real after-tax compensation rate, relative employment opportunity, and consumer access to variety.

 


Block 4.  Compensation, Prices and Costs

This block includes delivered prices, production costs, equipment cost, the consumption deflator, consumer prices, the price of housing, and the compensation equation.  Economic geography concepts account for the productivity and price effects of access to specialized labor, goods, and services.

These prices measure the price of the industry output, taking into account the access to production locations.  This access is important due to the specialization of production that takes place within each industry, and because transportation and transaction costs of distance are significant.  Composite prices for each industry are then calculated based on the production costs of supplying regions, the effective distance to these regions, and the index of access to the variety of outputs in the industry relative to the access by other uses of the product.

The cost of production for each industry is determined by the cost of labor, capital, fuel, and intermediate inputs.  Labor costs reflect a productivity adjustment to account for access to specialized labor, as well as underlying compensation rates.  Capital costs include costs of non-residential structures and equipment, while fuel costs incorporate electricity, natural gas, and residual fuels.

The consumption deflator converts industry prices to prices for consumption commodities.  For potential migrants, the consumer price is additionally calculated to include housing prices.  Housing prices change from their initial level depending on changes in income and population density.

Compensation changes are due to changes in labor demand and supply conditions and changes in the national compensation rate.  Changes in employment opportunities relative to the labor force and occupational demand change determine compensation rates by industry.

 


Block 5.  Market Shares

The market shares equations measure the proportion of local and export markets that are captured by each industry.  These depend on relative production costs, the estimated price elasticity of demand, and the effective distance between the home region and each of the other regions.  The change in share of a specific area in any region depends on changes in its delivered price and the quantity it produces compared with the same factors for competitors in that market.  The share of local and external markets then drives the exports from and imports to the home economy.